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The apex of the sprout of 10-30 cm is open, downy, green colored whose margins slightly pink, with erect axis . The first three apical leaves (I-III) are downy, green in colour, in the eaves. The basal leaflets (IV-VI) are unfolded, downy, green colored with bronze nuances.
The vine-shoot at the blooming is erect, green colored with large red shades on both sides, with circular section. The tendrils are bifid, of medium length, discontinuous.
The adult leaf is of medium dimensions, pentagonal or orbicular, three-lobed or five-lobed;
The top pagina is medium colored green, with reddish ribs until the first bifurcation; the bottom pagina is averagely tomentosa, with reddish ribs for a third of the length.
The petiolar sinus is u-shaped, little open; the upper lateral sinuses are u-shaped, opened; the lower lateral sinuses are v-shaped open or just mentioned;
The flap is little bollous, flat or slightly to the eaves; the teeth are small to straight line sides or hooked
The inflorescence is medium long, cylindrical, sometimes without wing, inserted to the 4° -5° node.
The flower is hermaphroditic.
The bunch to industrial maturity is approximately long, cylindrical, sometimes with wing, compact, with short peduncle.
The berry at industrial maturity is small, about 2 grams, uniform in size, round; The peel is blue-black colored, pruinose, covered with lenticels, with apparent and protruding navel; the pulp is slightly colored, juicy, with a neutral taste
The pips, in number of 3-4 to berry, are medium size, globose, with a thin long beak.
The vine shoot is robust, with a striated surface, a colored yellowish-brown, with circular section.

Phenological and productive characteristics
Compared to the "Aglianico", the "black Pallagrello" has in advance all the phenological stages of approximately 7 days. In fact, the budding occurs between the first and the second ten days of April; flowering is between May and June; The veraison falls between the start and the 20 of August, while the grape harvest is scheduled for the first decade of October.
The studies conducted by Prof Monaco shows that the "black Pallagrello" has a higher productivity than the Aglianico's vine, whose vine is used in experimentation as reference varieties. In fact, the unitary production and the average weight of the bunch has been considerably higher for the "black Pallagrello" compared to "Aglianico" (6.14 kg/plant against 3.34 kg/plant for the production; 251.2 g and 171 g for the weight's bunch
Also the vegetative vigour is higher, as is clear from the assessment of the amount of winter pruning wood (1.37 kg/plant against 1.02 kg/plant for wood).
During years of research, the values of real fertility have been superior for "Aglianico" compared to "black Pallagrello" (1.29 against 1.02) while the potential fertility was greater for the "black Pallagrello" (1.69 against 1.62 of the "Aglianico"). The two grape variety have a percentage of blind buds very similar (approximately 7% of the total for the "Aglianico" and 10% for "black Pallagrello").
The "black Pallagrello", finally, tolerate moderately the drought conditions and it's sensitive to more widespread diseases, particularly botrytis; the affinity with the rootstock is good.

The wort
The vine can amass a large amount of sugar in the bunches.In fact, over the years the sugar content, is never less than 22.00° Brix, with peaks of 23.60°, whose values correspond to a potential alcohol between 13 and 14 percent. The titratable acidity of the grape "black Pallagrello" at full ripeness, result between 5.02 and 5.5, values much more controlled than the "Aglianico"; the pH is between 3.4 and 3.6.
Even the Polyphenolic Kit is less complex compared to "Aglianico". In particular, in the grapes of Pallagrello nero "were find values of total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, flavonoids total inferior, to those found in grapes of Aglianico.
The above values show that the "black Pallagrello" present an excellent basic analytical framework that allows obtaining a red wine balanced of flavors since the end of the alcoholic fermentation, with a content tannic character.
The wine
Prof. Moio in his studies on wine "black Pallagrello", he has shown that it has an high alcoholic content,a low titratable acidity and the acidity is very low, because of values of pH almost always higher than 3.5.
The values of those parameters confirm a balanced taste of "black Pallagrello",compared to that obtained from Aglianico, already four months after the harvest.
Over the years the alcohol strenght reached the 14.30% tip and has never dropped below 13%. The total acidity has varied from a low of 4.2 g/l to a maximum of 4.75 g/l. The essences showed a mean value of 26 g/l.
The total polyphenols obtained by vinification in purity of grapes "black Pallagrello" are included between 2215 and 2406 mg/L; These values, together with the low concentration of flavani, confirm the poor astringency of the wine "black Pallagrello"
Also Prof. Moio trace the flavor profile of this, characterized essentially by notes of red fruits, tobacco, Blackberry jam, highlighting points of contact with the "Merlot" and "Primitive" he so concludes: "The characteristic grapes's black Pallagrello are in line with those of other cultivars of black berry grapes used for the production of quality wines.
The grape vine Black Pallagrello is perfectly suitable for the production of different types of wine: new wine, rose' wine, red wine to be allocated to aging in wood for the production of wines suitable to mature."


Casavecchia historical outline are taken from the "Portale del vino della Regione Campania"
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